FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar


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Among these were the Sakalava chiefdoms of the Menabe, centered in what is now the town of Morondava, and of Boina, centered in what is now the provincial capital of Mahajanga Majunga. The influence of the Sakalava extended across what is now the provinces of Antsiranana, Mahajanga, and Toliara.

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With the domination of the Indian Ocean by the British fleet and the end of the Arab slave trade, the Sakalava would lose their power to the emerging Merina threat. Beginning in the s, Merina rulers succeeded in establishing hegemony over the major part of the island, including the coast. In , the Merina ruler and the British governor of Mauritius concluded a treaty abolishing the slave trade , which had been important in Madagascar's economy.

In return, the island received British military and financial assistance. British influence remained strong for several decades, during which the Merina court was converted to Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, and Anglicanism. France invaded Madagascar in in what became known as the first Franco-Hova War Hova being the name of the Merina aristocrats , seeking to restore property that had been confiscated from French citizens.

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The British accepted the imposition of a French protectorate over Madagascar in in return for eventual control over Zanzibar now part of Tanzania and as part of an overall definition of spheres of influence in the area. Absolute French control over Madagascar was established by military force in , and in , the French Parliament voted to annex Madagascar.

The year-old Merina monarchy ended with the royal family being sent into exile in Algeria. During World War II , Malagasy troops fought in France , Morocco , and Syria. In , with French prestige at a low ebb, a Malagasy nationalist uprising was suppressed after several months of bitter fighting in which , people were killed. The French subsequently established reformed institutions in under the Loi Cadre Overseas Reform Act , and Madagascar moved peacefully toward independence.

The Malagasy Republic was proclaimed on October 14, , as an autonomous state within the French Community. A period of provisional government ended with the adoption of a constitution in and full independence on June 26, Madagascar's first president, Philibert Tsiranana, was elected when his Social Democratic Party gained power at independence in and was reelected without opposition in March Until the government of Didier Ratsiraka was formed in June Madagascar was in a time of unrest and transition.

During the 16 subsequent years of President Ratsiraka's rule, Madagascar continued under a government committed to revolutionary socialism based on the constitution establishing a highly centralized state. During this period a strategy of nationalization of private enterprises, centralization of the economy, and "Malgasization" of the education system crippled the economy.

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Even today traces of a highly centralized economic system and a high level of illiteracy are left from this era. National elections in and returned Ratsiraka for a second and third seven-year presidential term. For much of this period, only limited and restrained political opposition was tolerated, with no direct criticism of the president permitted in the press.

Beginning in the late s, the Ratsiraka regime came under increasing pressure to make fundamental changes. In response to a deteriorating economy, Ratsiraka relaxed socialist economic policies and instituted some liberal, private-sector reforms.

These included political reforms like the elimination of press censorship in and the formation of more political parties in In March , a widely representative National Forum organized by the Malagasy Christian Council of Churches FFKM drafted a new constitution. Troops guarding the proceedings clashed with pro-Ratsiraka "federalists" who tried to disrupt the forum in protest of constitutional draft provisions preventing the incumbent president from running again. The text of the new constitution was put to a nationwide referendum in August and approved by a wide margin, despite efforts by federalists to disrupt balloting in several coastal areas.

Presidential elections were held on November 25, , after the High Constitutional Court had ruled that Ratsiraka could become a candidate. Runoff elections were held in February , and the leader of the Hery Velona movement, Albert Zafy, defeated Ratsiraka. Zafy was sworn in as President on March 27, After President Zafy's impeachment by the National Assembly in and the short quasi-presidency of Norbert Ratsirahonana, the elections once again pitted Zafy and Ratsiraka, with Ratsiraka this time emerging victorious.

A National Assembly dominated by members of President Ratsiraka'a political party AREMA subsequently passed the Constitution, which considerably strengthened the presidency. In December , a presidential election was held in which both major candidates claimed victory. The Ministry of the Interior declared incumbent Ratsiraka of the AREMA party victorious.

In April Marc Ravalomanana was eventually named the victor after the decision of the High Constitutional Court. A political crisis followed in which Ratsiraka supporters cut major transport routes from the primary port city to the capital city, a stronghold of Ravalomanana support. Sporadic violence and considerable economic disruption continued until July when Ratsiraka and several of his prominent supporters fled to exile in France.

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In March , Malagasy voters approved a revised constitution. The principal institutions of the Republic of Madagascar are a presidency, a parliament National Assembly and Senate , a prime ministry and cabinet, and an independent judiciary.

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The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term, renewable twice. The National Assembly consists of representatives elected by direct vote every five years. The last election was held in December The Senate consists of 90 senators, two-thirds elected by local legislators and other Grand Electors and one-third appointed by the president, all for six-year terms.

A prime minister and council of ministers carries out day-to-day management of government. The president appoints the prime minister. The prime minister and members of Parliament initiate legislation, and the government executes it. The president can dissolve the National Assembly. For its part, the National Assembly can pass a motion of censure and require the prime minister and council of ministers to step down. The Constitutional Court approves the constitutionality of new laws. Madagascar is also part of the Indian Ocean Commission. The constitution of ruled that the country should be decentralized into territorial entities.

The name, number, and limits of territorial entities should be determined by law. The law passed by the national assembly in defined three such entity levels: region faritra , department departemanta and commune kaominina. The communes were created in Madagascar is divided into six autonomous provinces faritany mizakatena , which in turn are divided into 22 regions:.

Approximately half of the country's population practices traditional religions, which tend to emphasize links between the living and the dead. The Merina in the highlands particularly tend to hold tightly to this practice. They believe that the dead join their ancestors in the ranks of divinity and that ancestors are intensely concerned with the fate of their living descendants. The Merina and Betsileo reburial practice of famadihana, or "turning over the dead" celebrate this spiritual communion.

In this ritual, relatives' remains are removed from the family tomb, rewrapped in new silk shrouds, and returned to the tomb following festive ceremonies in their honor. Through these spiritual traditions there is a sense of the continuity of life and connection with those who have passed on to the world of spirit. About 45 percent of the Malagasy are Christian, divided almost evenly between Catholics and Protestants.


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Many incorporate the cult of the dead with their religious beliefs and bless their dead at church before proceeding with the traditional burial rites. They also may invite a pastor to attend a famadihana. The Roman Catholic Church is open to its members continuing these practices, while more conservative Protestant denominations tend to condemn them to be superstitions or demon worship that should be abandoned.

Many of the Christian churches are influential in politics. The best example of this is the Malagasy Council of Churches FFKM comprised of the four oldest and most prominent Christian denominations Roman Catholic, Reformed Protestant, Lutheran, and Anglican. In the coastal regions of the provinces of Mahajanga and Antsiranana Diego Suarez , Muslims constitute a significant minority. Muslims about seven percent of population are divided between those of Malagasy ethnicity, Indo-Pakistanis, and Comorians.

In President Ravalomanana's government banned the New Protestant Church FPVM , a growing charimatic church that had split from the mainline Reformed Protestant Church of Jesus Christ FJKM. The president, a lay leader in the FJKM, was accused of favoring one church over another in violation of the constitution, but the courts refused to overturn the decision. The Island is made up of a highland plateau fringed by a lowland coastal strip, narrow c. Once a mosaic of forest, brush, and grassland, the plateau is now largely deforested. A national park was established in to protect the island's lemurs , rare orchids , and other unique wild species, products of the island's eighty-million-year isolation from the mainland.

Some three-fourths of the island's plant and animal species are found only on Madagascar.

FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar
FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar
FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar
FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar
FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar
FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar FITIAVANA Antsiranana Madagaskar

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